JPA Criteria Queries – JPA标准查询

最后修改: 2022年 11月 11日

1. Overview


In this tutorial, we’ll discuss a very useful JPA feature — Criteria Queries.


It enables us to write queries without doing raw SQL as well as gives us some object-oriented control over the queries, which is one of the main features of Hibernate. The Criteria API allows us to build up a criteria query object programmatically, where we can apply different kinds of filtration rules and logical conditions.

它使我们能够在不做原始SQL的情况下编写查询,并使我们对查询有一些面向对象的控制,这也是Hibernate的主要特点之一。Criteria API允许我们以编程方式建立一个标准查询对象,在那里我们可以应用不同类型的过滤规则和逻辑条件。

Since Hibernate 5.2, the Hibernate Criteria API is deprecated, and new development is focused on the JPA Criteria API. We’ll explore how to use Hibernate and JPA to build Criteria Queries.

自Hibernate 5.2以来,Hibernate Criteria API已被废弃,新的开发重点是JPA Criteria API。我们将探讨如何使用Hibernate和JPA来构建标准查询。

2. Maven Dependencies


To illustrate the API, we’ll use the reference JPA implementation Hibernate.


To use Hibernate, we’ll make sure to add the latest version of it to our pom.xml file:



We can find the latest version of Hibernate here.


3. Simple Example Using Criteria


Let’s start by looking at how to retrieve data using Criteria Queries. We’ll look at how to get all the instances of a particular class from the database.


We have an Item class that represents the tuple “ITEM” in the database:


public class Item implements Serializable {

    private Integer itemId;
    private String itemName;
    private String itemDescription;
    private Integer itemPrice;

   // standard setters and getters

Let’s look at a simple criteria query that will retrieve all the rows of “ITEM” from the database:


Session session = HibernateUtil.getHibernateSession();
CriteriaBuilder cb = session.getCriteriaBuilder();
CriteriaQuery<Item> cr = cb.createQuery(Item.class);
Root<Item> root = cr.from(Item.class);;

Query<Item> query = session.createQuery(cr);
List<Item> results = query.getResultList();

The above query is a simple demonstration of how to get all the items. Let’s see it step by step:


  1. Create an instance of Session from the SessionFactory object
  2. Create an instance of CriteriaBuilder by calling the getCriteriaBuilder() method
  3. Create an instance of CriteriaQuery by calling the CriteriaBuilder createQuery() method
  4. Create an instance of Query by calling the Session createQuery() method
  5. Call the getResultList() method of the query object, which gives us the results

Now that we’ve covered the basics, let’s move on to some of the features of criteria query.


3.1. Using Expressions


The CriteriaBuilder can be used to restrict query results based on specific conditions, by using CriteriaQuery where() method and providing Expressions created by CriteriaBuilder.

通过使用CriteriaQuery where()方法和提供由CriteriaBuilder创建的Expressions,可以根据特定条件限制查询结果

Let’s see some examples of commonly used Expressions.


In order to get items having a price of more than 1000:

为了获得价格超过1000的物品。"itemPrice"), 1000));

Next, getting items having itemPrice less than 1000:

接下来,获得itemPrice小于1000的项目。"itemPrice"), 1000));

Items having itemName contain Chair:

具有itemName的项目包含Chair"itemName"), "%chair%"));

Records having itemPrice between 100 and 200:

itemPrice在100和200之间的记录。"itemPrice"), 100, 200));

Items having itemName in Skate Board, Paint and Glue:

项目的itemName滑板油漆胶水"itemName").in("Skate Board", "Paint", "Glue"));

To check if the given property is null:


To check if the given property is not null:


We can also use the methods isEmpty() and isNotEmpty() to test if a List within a class is empty or not.


Additionally, we can combine two or more of the above comparisons. The Criteria API allows us to easily chain expressions:

此外,我们可以将上述两个或多个比较结合起来。TCriteria API允许我们轻松地连锁表达式

Predicate[] predicates = new Predicate[2];
predicates[0] = cb.isNull(root.get("itemDescription"));
predicates[1] ="itemName"), "chair%");;

To add two expressions with logical operations:


Predicate greaterThanPrice ="itemPrice"), 1000);
Predicate chairItems ="itemName"), "Chair%");

Items with the above-defined conditions joined with Logical OR:

具有上述定义条件的项目用逻辑OR连接。, chairItems));

To get items matching with the above-defined conditions joined with Logical AND:

要获得与上述定义的条件相匹配的项目,并加入逻辑和, chairItems));

3.2. Sorting


Now that we know the basic usage of Criteria, let’s look at the sorting functionalities of Criteria.


In the following example, we order the list in ascending order of the name and then in descending order of the price:



In the next section, we will have a look at how to do aggregate functions.


3.3. Projections, Aggregates and Grouping Functions


Now let’s see the different aggregate functions.


Get row count:


CriteriaQuery<Long> cr = cb.createQuery(Long.class);
Root<Item> root = cr.from(Item.class);;
Query<Long> query = session.createQuery(cr);
List<Long> itemProjected = query.getResultList();

The following is an example of aggregate functions — Aggregate function for Average:

下面是一个集合函数的例子 – Aggregate函数为Average

CriteriaQuery<Double> cr = cb.createQuery(Double.class);
Root<Item> root = cr.from(Item.class);"itemPrice")));
Query<Double> query = session.createQuery(cr);
List avgItemPriceList = query.getResultList();

Other useful aggregate methods are sum(), max(), min(), count(), etc.


3.4. CriteriaUpdate


Starting from JPA 2.1, there’s support for performing database updates using the Criteria API.

从JPA 2.1开始,支持使用Criteria API执行数据库更新。

CriteriaUpdate has a set() method that can be used to provide new values for database records:


CriteriaUpdate<Item> criteriaUpdate = cb.createCriteriaUpdate(Item.class);
Root<Item> root = criteriaUpdate.from(Item.class);
criteriaUpdate.set("itemPrice", newPrice);
criteriaUpdate.where(cb.equal(root.get("itemPrice"), oldPrice));

Transaction transaction = session.beginTransaction();

In the above snippet, we create an instance of CriteriaUpdate<Item> from the CriteriaBuilder and use its set() method to provide new values for the itemPrice. In order to update multiple properties, we just need to call the set() method multiple times.


3.5. CriteriaDelete


CriteriaDelete enables a delete operation using the Criteria API.

CriteriaDelete可使用Criteria API进行删除操作。

We just need to create an instance of CriteriaDelete and use the where() method to apply restrictions:


CriteriaDelete<Item> criteriaDelete = cb.createCriteriaDelete(Item.class);
Root<Item> root = criteriaDelete.from(Item.class);
criteriaDelete.where(cb.greaterThan(root.get("itemPrice"), targetPrice));

Transaction transaction = session.beginTransaction();

4. Advantage Over HQL


In the previous sections, we covered how to use Criteria Queries.


Clearly, the main and most hard-hitting advantage of Criteria Queries over HQL is the nice, clean, object-oriented API.


We can simply write more flexible, dynamic queries compared to plain HQL. The logic can be refactored with the IDE and has all the type-safety benefits of the Java language itself.


Of course, there are some disadvantages as well, especially around more complex joins.


So, we generally have to use the best tool for the job — that can be the Criteria API in most cases, but there are definitely cases where we’ll have to go lower level.

因此,我们通常必须使用最好的工具来完成工作–在大多数情况下,这可能是Criteria API,但肯定有一些情况下,我们必须使用更低级别的工具。

5. Conclusion


In this article, we focused on the basics of Criteria Queries in Hibernate and JPA as well as on some of the advanced features of the API.


The code discussed here is available in the GitHub repository.

这里讨论的代码可在GitHub 仓库中找到。