Using Environment Variables in Spring Boot’s – 在Spring Boot’的application.properties中使用环境变量

最后修改: 2022年 8月 2日

 1. Overview


In this tutorial, we’ll explain how to use environment variables in Spring Boot’s Then we’ll demonstrate how to refer to those properties in the code.

在本教程中,我们将解释如何在Spring Boot的application.properties中使用环境变量。然后我们将演示如何在代码中引用这些属性。

2. Use Environment Variables in the File


Let’s define a global environment variable called JAVA_HOME with the value “C:\Program Files\Java\jdk-11.0.14”.

让我们定义一个全局环境变量,名为JAVA_HOME,其值为 “C:\Program Files\Java\jdk-11.0.14″。

To use this variable in Spring Boot’s, we need to surround it with braces:

要在Spring Boot的application.properties中使用这个变量,我们需要用大括号将其包围。


We can also use the System properties in the same way. For instance, on Windows, an OS property is defined by default:


It’s also possible to combine several variable values. Let’s define another environment variable, HELLO_BAELDUNG, with the value “Hello Baeldung”. We can now concatenate our two variables:

也可以把几个变量值结合起来。让我们定义另一个环境变量,HELLO_BAELDUNG,其值为 “Hello Baeldung”。现在我们可以把我们的两个变量串联起来。

baeldung.presentation=${HELLO_BAELDUNG}. Java is installed in the folder: ${JAVA_HOME}

The property baeldung.presentation now contains the following text: “Hello Baeldung. Java is installed in the folder: C:\Program Files\Java\jdk-11.0.14”.

property baeldung.presentation现在包含以下文字。”你好Baeldung。Java被安装在文件夹中。C:\Program Files\Java\jdk-11.0.14″。

This way, our properties have different values depending on the environment.


3. Use Our Environment Specific Properties in Code


Given that we start a Spring context, we’ll now explain how we can inject the property value into our code.


3.1. Inject the Value With @Value


First, we can use the @Value annotation. @Value handles setter, constructor, and field injections:

首先,我们可以使用@Value注释。@Value处理setter、constructor和field injections

private String baeldungPresentation;

3.2. Get It From Spring Environment


We can also get the value of the property via Spring’s Environment. We’ll need to autowire it:


private Environment environment;

The property value can now be retrieved thanks to the getProperty method:



3.3. Group Properties With @ConfigurationProperties


The @ConfigurationProperties annotation is very useful if we want to group properties together. We’ll define a Component that will gather all properties with a given prefix, in our case baeldung. Then we can define a setter for each property. The name of the setter is the rest of the name of the property. In our case, we have only one called presentation:


@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "baeldung")
public class BaeldungProperties {

    private String presentation;

    public String getPresentation() {
        return presentation;

    public void setPresentation(String presentation) {
        this.presentation = presentation;

We can now autowire a BaeldungProperties object:


private BaeldungProperties baeldungProperties;

Finally, to get the value of a specific property, we need to use the corresponding getter:



4. Conclusion


In this article, we learned how to define properties with different values depending on the environment, and use them in the code.


As always, the code is available over on GitHub.