Getting Started with Spring JMS – Spring JMS的入门

最后修改: 2016年 10月 17日


1. Overview


Spring provides a JMS Integration framework that simplifies the use of the JMS API. This article introduces the basic concepts of such integration.

Spring提供了一个JMS集成框架,简化了JMS API的使用。这篇文章介绍了这种集成的基本概念。

2. Maven Dependency


In order to use Spring JMS in our application, we need to add necessary artifacts in the pom.xml:

为了在我们的应用程序中使用Spring JMS,我们需要在pom.xml中添加必要的构件。


The newest version of the artifact can be found here.


3. The JmsTemplate

3. JmsTemplate

JmsTemplate class handles the creation and releasing of resources when sending or synchronously receiving messages.


Hence the class that uses this JmsTemplate only needs to implement callback interfaces as specified in the method definition.


Starting with Spring 4.1, the JmsMessagingTemplate is built on top of JmsTemplate which provides an integration with the messaging abstraction, i.e., org.springframework.messaging.Message. This, in turn, allows us to create a message to send in a generic manner.

从Spring 4.1开始,JmsMessagingTemplate建立在JmsTemplate之上,它提供了与消息传递抽象的集成,即org.springframework.messaging.Message。这反过来又允许我们创建一个消息,以通用方式发送。

4. Connection Management


In order to connect and be able to send/receive messages, we need to configure a ConnectionFactory.


A ConnectionFactory is one of the JMS administered objects which are preconfigured by an administrator. A client with the help of the configuration will make the connection with a JMS provider.


Spring provides 2 types of ConnectionFactory:


  • SingleConnectionFactory – is an implementation of ConnectionFactory interface, that will return the same connection on all createConnection() calls and ignore calls to close()
  • CachingConnectionFactory extends the functionality of the SingleConnectionFactory and adds enhances it with a caching of Sessions, MessageProducers, and MessageConsumers

5. Destination Management


As discussed above, along with the ConnectionFactory, destinations are also JMS administered objects and can be stored and retrieved from a JNDI.


Spring provides generic resolvers like DynamicDestinationResolver and specific resolvers such as JndiDestinationResolver.


The JmsTemplate will delegate the resolution of the destination name to one of the implementations basing on our selection.


It will also provide a property called defaultDestination – which will be used with send and receive operations that do not refer to a specific destination.


6. Message Conversion


Spring JMS would be incomplete without the support of Message Converters.

如果没有消息转换器的支持,Spring JMS是不完整的。

The default conversion strategy used by JmsTemplate for both ConvertAndSend() and ReceiveAndConvert() operations is the SimpleMessageConverter class.


The SimpleMessageConverter is able to handle TextMessages, BytesMessages, MapMessages, and ObjectMessages. This class implements the MessageConverter interface.

SimpleMessageConverter能够处理TextMessagesBytesMessagesMapMessages,以及ObjectMessages。该类实现了MessageConverter 接口。

Apart from SimpleMessageConverter, Spring JMS provides some other MessageConverter classes out of the box like MappingJackson2MessageConverter, MarshallingMessageConverter, MessagingMessageConverter.

除了SimpleMessageConverter,Spring JMS还提供了其他一些MessageConverter类,如MappingJackson2MessageConverterMarshallingMessageConverterMessagingMessageConverter

Moreover, we can create custom message conversion functionality simply by implementing the MessageConverter interface’s toMessage() and FromMessage() methods.


Let us see a sample code snippet on implementing a custom MessageConverter,


public class SampleMessageConverter implements MessageConverter {
    public Object fromMessage(Message message) 
      throws JMSException, MessageConversionException {

    public Message toMessage(Object object, Session session)
      throws JMSException, MessageConversionException { 

7. Sample Spring JMS

7.Spring JMS的样本

In this section, we will see how to use a JmsTemplate to send and receive messages.


The default method for sending the message is JmsTemplate.send(). It has two key parameters of which, the first parameter is the JMS destination and the second parameter is an implementation of MessageCreator. The JmsTemplate uses the MessageCreator‘s callback method createMessage() for constructing the message.


JmsTemplate.send() is good for sending plain text messages but in order to send custom messages, JmsTemplate has another method called convertAndSend().


We can see below the implementation of these methods:


public class SampleJmsMessageSender {

    private JmsTemplate jmsTemplate;
    private Queue queue;

    // setters for jmsTemplate & queue

    public void simpleSend() {
        jmsTemplate.send(queue, s -> s.createTextMessage("hello queue world"));
    public void sendMessage(Employee employee) { 
        System.out.println("Jms Message Sender : " + employee); 
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>(); 
        map.put("name", employee.getName()); map.put("age", employee.getAge()); 

Below is the message receiver class, we call it as Message-Driven POJO (MDP). We can see that the class SampleListener is implementing the MessageListener interface and provides the text specific implementation for the interface method onMessage().


Apart from onMessage() method, our SampleListener class also called a method receiveAndConvert() for receiving custom messages:


public class SampleListener implements MessageListener {

    public JmsTemplate getJmsTemplate() {
        return getJmsTemplate();

    public void onMessage(Message message) {
        if (message instanceof TextMessage) {
            try {
                String msg = ((TextMessage) message).getText();
                System.out.println("Message has been consumed : " + msg);
            } catch (JMSException ex) {
                throw new RuntimeException(ex);
        } else {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Message Error");

    public Employee receiveMessage() throws JMSException {
        Map map = (Map) getJmsTemplate().receiveAndConvert();
        return new Employee((String) map.get("name"), (Integer) map.get("age"));

We saw how to implement MessageListener and below we see the configuration in Spring application context:


<bean id="messageListener" class="com.baeldung.spring.jms.SampleListener" /> 

<bean id="jmsContainer" 
    <property name="connectionFactory" ref="connectionFactory"/> 
    <property name="destinationName" ref="IN_QUEUE"/> 
    <property name="messageListener" ref="messageListener" /> 

DefaultMessageListenerContainer is the default message listener container Spring provides along with many other specialized containers.


8. Basic Configuration With Java Annotations


The @JmsListener is the only annotation required to convert a method of a normal bean into a JMS listener endpoint. Spring JMS provides many more annotations to ease the JMS implementation.

@JmsListener是将普通Bean的方法转换为JMS监听器端点所需的唯一注解。Spring JMS提供了更多的注解来简化JMS的实现。

We can see some of the sample classes annotated below:


@JmsListener(destination = "myDestination")
public void SampleJmsListenerMethod(Message<Order> order) { ... }

In order to add multiple listeners to a single method we just need to add multiple @JmsListener annotations.


We need to add the @EnableJms annotation to one of our configuration classes to support the @JmsListener annotated methods:


public class AppConfig {

    public DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory jmsListenerContainerFactory() {
        DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory factory 
          = new DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory();
        return factory;

9. Error Handler


We can also configure a custom error handler for our message listener container.


Let’s first implement the org.springframework.util.ErrorHandler interface:


public class SampleJmsErrorHandler implements ErrorHandler {

    // ... logger

    public void handleError(Throwable t) {
        LOG.warn("In default jms error handler...");
        LOG.error("Error Message : {}", t.getMessage());


Note that we have overridden the handleError() method, which simply logs the error message.

请注意,我们已经覆盖了 handleError()方法,它只是记录了错误信息。

And then, we need to reference our error handler service in the DefaultJmsListenerConnectionFactory using the setErrorHandler() method:

然后,我们需要在DefaultJmsListenerConnectionFactory 中使用setErrorHandler() 方法引用我们的错误处理服务。

public DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactorybjmsListenerContainerFactory() {
    DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory factory 
      = new DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory();
    return factory;

With this, our configured error handler will now catch any unhandled exceptions and log the message. 


Optionally, we can also configure the error handler using the plain-old XML configurations by updating our appContext.xml:

作为选择,我们也可以通过更新我们的 appContext.xml:,使用普通的XML配置来配置错误处理器。

<bean id="sampleJmsErrorHandler"
  class="com.baeldung.spring.jms.SampleJmsErrorHandler" />

<bean id="jmsContainer"
    <property name="connectionFactory" ref="connectionFactory" />
    <property name="destinationName" value="IN_QUEUE" />
    <property name="messageListener" ref="messageListener" />
    <property name="errorHandler" ref="sampleJmsErrorHandler" />

10. Conclusion


In this tutorial, we discussed the configuration and basic concepts of Spring JMS. We also had a brief look at the Spring-specific JmsTemplate classes which are used for sending and receiving messages.

在本教程中,我们讨论了Spring JMS的配置和基本概念。我们还简要介绍了Spring特有的JmsTemplate类,它用于发送和接收消息。

You can find the code implementation in the GitHub project.