Spring Security Basic Authentication – Spring Security基本认证

最后修改: 2013年 6月 1日


1. Overview


This tutorial will explain how to set up, configure, and customize Basic Authentication with Spring. We’re going to build on top of the simple Spring MVC example, and secure the UI of the MVC application with the Basic Auth mechanism provided by Spring Security.

本教程将解释如何设置、配置和自定义使用 Spring 的基本验证。我们将在简单的Spring MVC 示例的基础上,利用 Spring Security 提供的 Basic Auth 机制来保护 MVC 应用程序的 UI。

2. The Spring Security Configuration


We can configure Spring Security using Java config:

我们可以使用Java配置来配置Spring Security。

public class CustomWebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Autowired private MyBasicAuthenticationEntryPoint authenticationEntryPoint;

    public void configureGlobal(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {

    public SecurityFilterChain filterChain(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.addFilterAfter(new CustomFilter(), BasicAuthenticationFilter.class);
        return http.build();
    public PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder() {
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();

Here we’re using the httpBasic() element to define Basic Authentication inside the SecurityFilterChain bean.


We could achieve the same result using XML as well:


<http pattern="/securityNone" security="none"/>
<http use-expressions="true">
    <intercept-url pattern="/**" access="isAuthenticated()" />
    <http-basic />

            <user name="user1" password="{noop}user1Pass" authorities="ROLE_USER" />

What’s relevant here is the <http-basic> element inside the main <http> element of the configuration. This is enough to enable Basic Authentication for the entire application. Since we’re not focusing on the Authentication Manager in this tutorial, we’ll use an in-memory manager with the user and password defined in plain text.


The web.xml of the web application enabling Spring Security has already been discussed in the Spring Logout tutorial.

Spring Logout 教程中已经讨论了启用 Spring Security 的 Web 应用程序的 web.xml

3. Consuming the Secured Application


The curl command is our go-to tool for consuming the secured application.


First, let’s try to request the /homepage.html without providing any security credentials:


curl -i http://localhost:8080/spring-security-rest-basic-auth/api/foos/1

We get back the expected 401 Unauthorized and the Authentication Challenge:

我们得到预期的401 Unauthorized认证挑战

HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1
Set-Cookie: JSESSIONID=E5A8D3C16B65A0A007CFAACAEEE6916B; Path=/spring-security-mvc-basic-auth/; HttpOnly
WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="Spring Security Application"
Content-Type: text/html;charset=utf-8
Content-Length: 1061
Date: Wed, 29 May 2013 15:14:08 GMT

Normally the browser would interpret this challenge and prompt us for credentials with a simple dialog, but since we’re using curl, this isn’t the case.


Now let’s request the same resource, the homepage, but provide the credentials to access it as well:


curl -i --user user1:user1Pass 

As a result, the response from the server is 200 OK along with a Cookie:

结果,服务器的响应是200 OK以及一个Cookie

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1
Set-Cookie: JSESSIONID=301225C7AE7C74B0892887389996785D; Path=/spring-security-mvc-basic-auth/; HttpOnly
Content-Type: text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Language: en-US
Content-Length: 90
Date: Wed, 29 May 2013 15:19:38 GMT

From the browser, we can consume the application normally; the only difference is that a login page is no longer a hard requirement since all browsers support Basic Authentication, and use a dialog to prompt the user for credentials.


4. Further Configuration – the Entry Point


By default, the BasicAuthenticationEntryPoint provisioned by Spring Security returns a full page for a 401 Unauthorized response back to the client. This HTML representation of the error renders well in a browser. Conversely, it’s not well suited for other scenarios, such as a REST API where a json representation may be preferred.

默认情况下,Spring Security提供的BasicAuthenticationEntryPoint会将401 Unauthorized响应的完整页面返回给客户端。这个错误的HTML表示法在浏览器中的渲染效果很好。相反,它不太适合其他场景,例如REST API,那里可能更喜欢用json表示。

The namespace is flexible enough for this new requirement as well.  To address this, the entry point can be overridden:

命名空间对于这个新的要求也是足够灵活的。 为了解决这个问题,入口点可以被重写。

<http-basic entry-point-ref="myBasicAuthenticationEntryPoint" />

The new entry point is defined as a standard bean:


public class MyBasicAuthenticationEntryPoint extends BasicAuthenticationEntryPoint {

    public void commence(
      HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, AuthenticationException authEx) 
      throws IOException, ServletException {
        response.addHeader("WWW-Authenticate", "Basic realm="" + getRealmName() + """);
        PrintWriter writer = response.getWriter();
        writer.println("HTTP Status 401 - " + authEx.getMessage());

    public void afterPropertiesSet() throws Exception {

By writing directly to the HTTP Response, we now have full control over the format of the response body.


5. The Maven Dependencies


The Maven dependencies for Spring Security have been discussed before in the Spring Security with Maven article. We will need both spring-security-web and spring-security-config available at runtime.

Spring Security with Maven文章中已经讨论过Spring Security的Maven依赖性。我们将需要在运行时提供spring-security-webspring-security-config

6. Conclusion


In this article, we secured an MVC application with Spring Security and Basic Authentication. We discussed the XML configuration, and we consumed the application with simple curl commands. Finally, we took control of the exact error message format, moving from the standard HTML error page to a custom text or JSON format.

在这篇文章中,我们用Spring Security和Basic Authentication保护了一个MVC应用程序。我们讨论了XML配置,并通过简单的curl命令来消耗应用程序。最后,我们控制了确切的错误信息格式,从标准的HTML错误页面转移到自定义的文本或JSON格式。

The full implementation of this article can be found in the GitHub project. This is a Maven-based project, so it should be easy to import and run as it is.


When the project runs locally, the sample HTML can be accessed at: